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JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Search The ScholarShip. This Collection. View Google Analytics Statistics. Show full item record. There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula.

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Stems have a larger diameter than with Victorian clay pipes. Economics and fashion changed the basic shape of the clay pipe. Bowls became larger as tobacco.

In the late sixteenth century, a new class of artifact began to appear within the European archaeological record. This was a specially designed receptacle for smoking tobacco which consisted of a bowl in which the tobacco burned and a perforated tube through which the smoke was inhaled. To begin with, in England, clay pipes were made in iron-free, white-firing clays, made in one piece, in two-part molds and fired in specially designed kilns. This technology quickly spread through western Europe and to European overseas colonies, including those in North America from whence, arguably, the idea — though not the technology — had originally come.

By the early seventeenth century, a parallel development occurred within the Ottoman Empire where the earliest pipes — the chibouk — were mold-made in red-firing clays but consisted solely of bowls to which were added smoking stems made of wood or reed. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes

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Clay pipes have been used for smoking tobacco from the 17th century onward. The Dutch city of Gouda was a major production centre and remains of pipes produced there can be found all over the world. Because these items are rather fragile a lot of it was thrown away by our ancestors. Archaeologist can use the pipe fragments for dating when they excavate a site by using the principle that everything that was deposited with it or on top of it must be placed there after the pipe production.

Trying to identify and date clay pipe fragments can be both difficult and fun. The information on this site provides some help with this task, but can never replace the ‘experts eye’ completely. Interactive catalog of dutch clay pipe marks from Gouda. Information about the claypipe makers marks has been extracted from the digital version of ‘Goudse pijpenmakers en hun merken’ see: next item. Use this to visually compare the marks on your finds with the images from the catalog.

Browse the digitized version of ‘Goudse pijpenmakers en hun merken’.


According to the typology, we have three main groups: I. Reddish undecorated pipes, II. Ottoman pipes, III. Hungarian pipes, grouped by similar characteristics in shape, decorative pattern and clay type of which they were manufactured.

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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula.

Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland Virginia North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Jessica Glickman An Interview with Kathleen Deagan. Charles Robin Ewen Gabriela Figuereo Figures and Tables from this paper.

Figures and Tables.

by Robert F. Marx

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“Pipe stem dating was first developed by archaeologist J.C. Harrington. These were white clay tobacco pipes, also called kaolin clay pipes.

Impressed into clay tobacco pipes are bits of data that have fueled endless research avenues since the earliest days of archaeology on historic sites excavated on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture.

We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer. Marks also appear on pipe stems. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse negative or relief raised impressions Oswald In the first half of the 17th century, for both English and Dutch pipes, marks generally appear on the flat base of the heel.

In the second half of the 17th century, marks were increasingly placed straddling heels or spurs, on bowls, and on stems.

Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 2

Clay is one of the most ancient piping materials, with the earliest known example coming from Babylonia BCE. In the U. Clay pipe was very heavy by nature. Delivering it required the availability of either rail or water transport. Until those systems developed, clay pipe plants were created in many towns, wherever there was a need and an adequate supply of clay.

This may indicate a loose dating for. Feature 19A of 40R12 as being s, s or s. All of the features containing clay pipes dated to Phase Ill were.

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